FORMIC ACID (64-18-6)

Product Overview

Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid, and has the chemical formula HCOOH and structure H−C−O−H. Formic acid, a clear and pungent liquid, is the simplest carboxylic acid. Initially isolated from ants, it’s produced from sodium formate and sulfuric acid or as a by-product in acetic acid manufacturing.

Widely used in industries such as textiles, leather, and pharmaceuticals, it’s a potent reducing agent with corrosive properties. Formic acid has historical significance, being named after ants, and it plays a role in various natural sources, including bee venom.

Characteristic Data

Property Value
Formula CH₂O₂
IUPAC ID Formic Acid
Molar Mass 46.03 g/mol
Density 1.22 g/cm³
Boiling Point 100.8 °C
Melting point 8.2-8.4 °C
Vapor density 1.03 (vs air)
Vapor pressure 52 mm Hg ( 37 °C)
Flash point 133 °F
Storage temp 2-8°C
Solubility H2O: soluble1g/10 mL, clear, colorless
Form Liquid
Color APHA: ≤15
PH 3.47(1 mM solution);2.91(10 mM solution);2.38(100 mM solution)
Odor at 0.10 % in water. pungent vinegar formyl
Odor Type acetic
Water Solubility MISCIBLE
Sensitive Hygroscopic
Stability Stable. Substances to be avoided include strong bases, strong oxidizing agents and powdered metals, furfuryl alcohol. Combustible. Hygroscopic. Pressure may build up in tightly closed bottles, so bottles should be opened carefully and vented periodically.


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Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid. Its chemical formula is HCOOH, and its structural formula is H−C−O−H.

Formic acid plays a crucial role as an intermediate in chemical synthesis due to its versatile reactivity. It is involved in various processes, including the production of pharmaceuticals, dyes, and other organic compounds.

Esters, salts, and the anion derived from formic acid are collectively referred to as formates. These compounds are formed through the reaction or interaction of formic acid with other chemical species.

Formic acid finds applications in various industries, including leather processing, textile dyeing, and as a coagulant in the rubber industry. Its unique properties make it valuable in diverse industrial processes.

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